James Madison University
Photo: Christy L. Ludlow

Christy L. Ludlow, Ph.D.


  • Office: HHS 1141
  • Phone: 540-568-3876
  • Email: ludlowcx@jmu.edu
  • Mailing Address:
    MSC 4304
    235 Martin Luther King Jr Way
    Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807


  • Ph.D. New York University

Research and Teaching Areas


  • Voice  and Voice Disorders
  • Materials and Methods for Measurement in Communication Sciences and Disorders
  • Developing and Running Clinical Trials


  • Manipulating neural control for dysphagia rehabilitation
  • Neural bases of sensori-motor change for voice and speech control

Research Laboratory

LOGO: Neural bases lab

Current and Ongoing Research Projects

  • Role of enhancing sensory feedback in neural control for voice, speech and swallowing
  • Use of sensory enhancement during motor training for recovery from dysphagia
  • Diagnosis and assessment of spasmodic dysphonia  

Current Funding

National Institutes of Health
U54 NS065701,   Jinnah (PI)  09/01/2009-08/31/2014
The Dystonia Coalition, Dr. Ludlow is  Project Leader on Project 3, “Validity and Reliability of Diagnostic Methods and Measures of Spasmodic Dysphonia,

Passy Muir, Inc., Ludlow (PI)
Psychophysiocal Effects of Vibrotactile stimulation on swallowing and its neural control 08/01/ 2011-2012

Alfred Mann Foundation Ludlow (PI)
Analyses of  physiological effects of neural stimulation during chemoradiation in head and neck cancer 09/01/ 2011-2012

PHOTO: subject in lab

Publications (last five years)

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles in the last 5 years

Kenney MK, Barac-Cikoja B, Finnegan K, Jeffries N, Ludlow CL.  Speech perception and short term memory deficits in persistent developmental speech disorder.  Brain and Language, 2006 Feb;96(2):178-90.

Ali SO, Guillemin AD, Tomassen M, Schulz GM, Fromm SJ, Hosey LA, Varga M, Ludlow CL, Braun AR.  CNS Plasticity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H215O-PET Study Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 2006 Oct. 49: 1127-1146.

Humbert IA, Poletto CJ, Saxon KG, Kearney PR, Crujido L., Wright-Harp W., Payne J., Jeffries N., Sonies BC., Ludlow CL. The effect of surface stimulation on hyolaryngeal movement in normal individuals at rest and during swallowing.  Journal of Applied Physiology, 2006, Dec., 101: 1657-1663.

Ludlow CL, Humbert I, Saxon KG, Poletto CJ, Sonies B, Crujido L. Effects of surface electrical stimulation both at rest and during swallowing in chronic pharyngeal dysphagia, Dysphagia, 2007,22: 1-10.

Loucks TMJ, Poletto CJ, Simonyan K, Reynolds CL, Ludlow CL.Human Brain Activation during Phonation and Exhalation: Common Volitional Control for Two Upper Airway Functions.  NeuroImage, 2007 May 15;36(1):131-43.

Simonyan K, Saad ZS, Loucks TM, Poletto CJ, Ludlow CL.  Functional neuroanatomy of human voluntary cough and sniff production. NeuroImage 2007 Aug 15;37(2):401-9.

Henriquez V., Schulz GM, Bielamowicz S, Ludlow CL. Laryngeal reflex responses are not modulated during human voice and respiratory tasks.  Journal of Physiology (London), 2007 Dec 15;585 (Pt 3):779-89. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

Humbert IA, Poletto CJ, Saxon KG, Kearney KR, Ludlow CL.  The effect of surface electrical stimulation in vocal fold position. Laryngoscope, 2008 Jan;118(1):14-9.

Ludlow CL, Hoit J, Kent R, Ramig LO, Shrivastav R, Strand E, Yorkston K, Sapienza C. Translating principles of neural plasticity into research on speech motor control recovery and rehabilitation. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 2008 Feb;51(1):S240-58..

Chang S-E, Erickson KI, Ambrose NG, Hasegawa-Johnson MA, Ludlow CL.  Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering. NeuroImage , 2008 Feb 1;39(3):1333-44. Epub 2007 Oct 13.

Simonyan K., Tovar-Moll F., Ostuni J, Hallett M, Kalasinsky VF, Lewin-Smith MR, Rushing EJ, Vortmeyer AO, Ludlow CL. Focal white matter changes in spasmodic dysphonia: a combined DTI and neuropathological study. Brain, 2008 Feb;131(Pt 2):447-59. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Lowell SY, Poletto CJ, Knorr-Chung, BR, Reynolds RC, Simonyan K, and Ludlow CL. Sensory stimulation activates both motor and sensory components of the swallowing system. Neuroimage, 2008 Aug 1;42(1):285-95.

Simpson DM, Blitzer A, Brashear A, Comella C, Dubinsky R, Hallett M, Jankovic J, Karp B, Ludlow CL, Miyasaki JM, Naumann M, So Y. Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review): Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2008 May 6;70(19):1699-706.

Ludlow CL, Adler CH, Berke GS, Bielamowicz SA, Blitzer SB, Bressman SB, Hallett M, Jinnah HA, Juergens U,  Perlmutter JS, Sapienza C.  Research priorities in spasmodic dysphonia.  Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2008 Oct;139(4):495-505.

*Blitzer AB, Crumley RL, Dailey SH, Ford CN, Floeter MK, Hillel AD, Hoffman HT, Ludlow CL, Merati A, Munin MC, Robinson LR, Rosen C, Saxon KG, Sulica L, Thibeault SL, Titze I, Woo P, Woodson GE. Recommendations of the Neurolaryngology Study Group on Laryngeal Electromyography.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Jun;140(6):782-793. Epub 2009 Apr 9..*(Authors in alphabetical order)

Chang S-E, Kenney M.K., Loucks T.M.J., Ludlow C.L. Brain activation abnormalities during speech and non-speech in stuttering speakers, Neuroimage. 2009 May 15;46(1):201-12. Epub 2009 Feb 11

Ludlow C.L. Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitation of current approaches, Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Jun;17(3):160-5.

Chang S-E., Kenney M.K., Loucks T.M.J., Poletto C.J., Ludlow C.L.  Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures, Neuroimage. 2009 Aug 1;47(1):314-25. Epub 2009 Mar 25.

Feng X, Henriquez VM, Walters JR, Ludlow CL. Effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on laryngeal neurophysiology in the rat, J Neurophysiol. 2009 Aug;102(2):1193-205. Epub 2009 Jun 17

Simonyan K, Ludlow C.L. Vortmeyer A. Brainstem pathology in spasmodic dysphonia. Laryngoscope. 2010 Jan;120 (1);121-4.

Simonyan K, Ostuni J, Ludlow CL, Horwitz, B. Functional but not structural networks of the human laryngeal motor cortex show left hemispheric lateralization during syllable but not breathing production. J Neurosci. 2009 Nov 25;29(47):14912-23

Landouré G, Zdebik A.A, Martinez T.L., Burnett B.G., Stanescu H.C.,  Inada H.,   Shi Y., Taye A.A., Lingling Kong L.,   Munns C.H.,   Choo S.S.,   Phelps C.B., Reema Paudel8, Houlden, H., Ludlow C.L., Caterina M.J.,  Gaudet R.,   Kleta, R., Fischbeck K.H., and Sumner C. J. Mutations in TRPV4 cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Nature Genetics,2010 Feb;42 (2):170-4.

Simonyan K , Ludlow C.L. Abnormal Activation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An fMRI Study. Cerebral Cortex 2010 Nov; 20 (11) 2749-2759. E pub March 2010.

Zimon M, Baets J, Auer-Grumbach M, Berciano J, Garcia A, Lopez-Laso E, Merlin L, Hilton-Jones D, McEntagart M, Crosby AH, Barisic N, Boltshauser E, Shaw CE, Landoure G, Ludlow CL, Gaudet R, Houlden H, Reilly MM, Fischbeck KH, Sumner CJ, Timmerman B, Jordanova A, Jonghe PD. Dominant mutations in the cation channel gene transient receptor vanilloid 4 cause an unusual spectrum of neuropathies. Brain 2010 Jun;133(Pt 6):1798-809.

Ludlow CL Electrical neuromuscular stimulation in dysphagia: current status. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Jun; 18 (3): 159-164.

Ludlow, CKL. Spasmodic dysphonia: a laryngeal control disorder specific to speech . J Neuroscience 2011, Jan 19: 31 (3) 793-797.

Chang SE,  Horwitz B,  Ostuni J, Reynolds R and Ludlow CL Evidence of left inferior frontal-premotor structural and functional connectivity deficits in adults who stutter. Cerebral Cortex, Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Simonyan K and Ludlow CL Abnormal structure-function relationship in spasmodic dysphonia. Cerebral Cortex, epub ahead of print June 2011

Ludlow CL. Central nervous system control of interactions between vocalization and respiration in mammals. Head & Neck, in press, 2011

PHOTO: Infant subject in lab

Invited Reviews Published in Journals, Chapters and Books last 5 years

Sataloff RT, Mandel S, Mann EA, and Ludlow CL. Practice parameter: Laryngeal electromyography (an evidence-based review). Muscle and Nerve, 28:767-772, 2003. reprinted in Otolaryngology-head and neck Surgery 130: 770-779, 2004 and Journal of Voice 18: 261-274, 2004.

Ludlow, CL. Recent advances in laryngeal sensori-motor control for voice, speech and swallowing. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 12:160-165, 2004.

Ludlow CL. Central nervous system control of the laryngeal muscles in humans.  Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology , 147: 205-222, 2005.

Ludlow CL. Current issues on the neuropharmacology of stuttering. In Stuttering Research and Practice: Contemporary Issues and Approaches edited by Bernstein-Ratner N and Tetnowski J. LEA Publishers, 2006.

Kearney P, Ludlow, CL. and Mann, EA.  Management of spasmodic dysphonia.  In J. Rubin,    RT. Sataloff and GS. Korovin, Diagnosis and Treatment of Voice Disorders, 3rd  Edition, Singular Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.

Ludlow CL. Laryngeal dystonia:.  In Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Dystonia, edited by Warner WT and Bressman, S. Martin Dunitz, London England, 2007

Simonyan K and Ludlow, CL. La production vocale.  In p. Auzou, V. Rolland-Monnoury, S. Pinto and C Ozsancak,  Les Dysarthries, Solal Marseille, France, 2007.

Ludlow CL. Physiology of airway regulation. In Merati A., and Bielamowicz, S (Eds.,) Textbook of Laryngology,  Plural Publishing, San Diego, CA, 2007

Saxon KG, Ludlow CL. Pharmaceutical Interventions for Stuttering: A Critical Review. In Conture E. and Curlee R., Eds., Stuttering and Related Disorders of Fluency, Third Edition, Thieme, New York, N.Y., 2007.

Ludlow CL, Loucks TMJ, Simonyan K, and Lowell S. Brain imaging of voice, swallowing and other upper airway functions. In Ingham R., Neuroscience Research in Communication Disorders, Plural Publishing, San Diego, CA, 2007

Ludlow C.L. Electrical stimulation and dysphagia: What we do and don’t know.  ASHA Leader 13 (3), pp 8-11, 2008

Ludlow C.L. Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitation of current approaches, Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Jun;17(3):160-5.

Ludlow C.L. Central nervous system control for human voice production. Communicative Disorders Review, 2009

Ludlow CL and Bielamowicz SA. Neurogenic disorders of the larynx. In  J.B Snow, Wackym, PA (Eds.) Ballenger’s Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery Edition 17, BC Decker, 2009

Chang S-E. and Ludlow CL. Brain imaging in children. In B. Maassen, P HHM van Lieshout, Speech Motor Control: New Directions in Basic and Applied Research, Oxford University press, Oxford , England, in press, 2010

Ludlow CL and Bielamowicz SA. Neurogenic disorders of the larynx. In  J.B Snow, Wackym, PA (Eds.) Ballenger’s Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery Edition 17, BC Decker, Inc. People’s Medical Publishing House, Shelton, CT, 2009.

Ludlow C.L. Central nervous system control for human voice production. Communicative Disorders Review, Vol 2, Plural Press, San Diego, 2009

Ludlow, CL and Kent RD. Building a Research Career, Plural Publishing, 2011

Ludlow CL. Lessons from the Neural Bases of Speech and Voice. Perspectives on Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, Vol., 21., in press, 2011

International and National Invited Addresses (last 5 years)

Ludlow, CL. “The modulation of sensori-motor functions for voice production and disorders” G. Paul Moore Lecturer, Voice Foundation’s 35th Annual Symposium, June 2006, Philadelphia, PA.

Ludlow, CL. “The pathophysiology and neuropathology of voice disorders” SHBT Distinguished Lecturer 2007, Harvard-MIT Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, June 14, 2007, Cambridge, MA

Ludlow, CL. “Application of neuromuscular stimulation to swallowing disorders” Invited address to the Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology, Toronto, Canada,  June 16, 2007.

Ludlow, CL.  “The effects if dopamine depletion and augmentation on laryngeal physiology” Invited address at the 1st International Symposium on Basal; Ganglia Speech Disorders and Deep Brain Stimulation, Queen Square , London , UK, July 2, 2007

Ludlow, C.L. “Neurophysiological measures of laryngeal sensorimotor control and disorders” Summer update in otolaryngology, Neurolaryngology Study Group, Beaver Creek, Colorado, July 21, 2007.

Ludlow C.L. “ The role of sensation in laryngeal control” Mideastern Otolaryngological Conference, April 2-4th, Dubai, East Arab Emirates, 2008.

Ludlow, C.L. “CNS control of human vocalization and its response to changes in sensation” Key note speaker, International Conference on Advances in Laryngeal Biophysiology, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 2008.

Ludlow CL. Invited Speaker , “Neuro-Rehabilitation of Swallowing Disorders After Brain Injury”, American Speech-Language –Hearing Association Annual  Meeting, Chicago Illinois, 2008.

Ludlow CL, Invited Speaker , “Identification of Spasmodic Dysphonia & Update on Treatment Outcomes”, American Speech-Language –Hearing Association Annual  Meeting, Chicago Illinois, 2008.

Ludlow CL, Invited Speaker , “Dilemmas & Controversies in the Management of Complex Dysphagias”, American Speech-Language –Hearing Association Annual  Meeting, Chicago Illinois, 2008.

Ludlow CL., Invited Keynote Speaker, “In Homage of Britta Hammarberg: Central Nervous System Control for Human Voice Production” Karolinska Institute , Stockholm, Sweden, 2009.

Ludlow CL. Featured presentation, “State of knowledge on central control abnormalities in neurologic voice disorders.17th Annual Pacific Voice and UCLA  Conference, Los Angeles, February 26-27th 2009.

Ludlow CL, Keynote speaker, From the Brain to the Larynx, at the “ International Workshop on Laser Voice Surgery & Voice Care” April 3 & 4, 2009, Paris – France, 2009

Ludlow CL. Keynote Speaker “What is special about speech and voice?” NINDS Annual Retreat,  Warrenton, VA., May 2009.

Ludlow, CL. Keynote Speaker , Central Nervous System Control of Interactions Between Vocalization and Respiration in Mammals, Invited presentation  at International Conference on  Integrative Neural Systems Underlying Vital Aerodigestive Tract Functions, Madison Wisconsin, June 2010.

Ludlow CL Keynote lecture “Central Nervous System Control for Voice Production in Humans” Invited presentation 4th World Voice Congress. Seoul, Korea, September 2010.

Ludlow, CL. Invited presentation. “Speech therapy and Parkinson Disease: Evidence-based assessment of Speech Therapy.  World Parkinson Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, October 2010

Ludlow CL Zemlin Invited Lecture, American Speech Language Hearing Association, . “Lessons from the Neural Bases of Speech and Voice”, Philadelphia, PA November 2010.

Ludlow CL KeyNote Address: “Assessment and Treatment of Dysphagia” 2011 Shanghai International Voice Symposium, May 19-21, Shanghai China, 2011

Ludlow  CL Keynote Address: “Recent Advances in Dysphagia”  Summerfest 2011, Challenges to Healthy Communication, May 28th, University of Hong Kong, Hon Kong, China, 2011 .

PHOTO: Lab subjects


  • March 6-10 
    Spring Break
    Classes do not meet
  • May 4-6 
    Commencement Ceremonies
Information about Labs